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  • 绝缘材料发展历史
  • 本站编辑:临安联丰线带厂发布日期:2019-07-18 10:58 浏览次数:
最早使用的绝缘材料为棉布、丝绸、云母、橡胶等天然制品。在20世纪初,工业合成塑料酚醛树脂首先问世,其电性能好,耐热性高。以后又相继出现了性能更好的脲醛树脂、醇酸树脂。三氯联苯合成绝缘油的出现使电力电容器的比特性出现了一次飞跃(但因有害人体健康,后已停止使用)。同期还合成了六氟化硫。
 
The earliest insulating materials are cotton, silk, mica, rubber and other natural products. At the beginning of the 20th century, industrial synthetic plastic phenolic resin was first introduced. It has good electrical properties and high heat resistance. Later, urea-formaldehyde resin and alkyd resin with better properties appeared successively. The emergence of trichlorobiphenyl synthetic insulating oil has made a leap in the specific characteristics of power capacitors (but since harmful to human health, it has stopped using). Sulfur hexafluoride was also synthesized at the same time.
 
30年代以来人工合成绝缘材料得到了迅速发展,主要有缩醛树脂、氯丁橡胶、聚氯乙烯、丁苯橡胶、聚酰胺、三聚氰胺、聚乙烯及性能优异称之为塑料王的聚四氟乙烯等。这些合成材料的出现,对电工技术的发展起了重大作用。如缩醛漆包线用于电机,使其工作温度和 可靠性提高,而电机的体积和重量大大降低。玻璃纤维及其编织带的研制成功及有机硅树脂的合成又为电机绝缘增加了H级这个耐热等级。
 
Since the 1930s, synthetic insulating materials have developed rapidly, mainly acetal resins, chloroprene rubber, polyvinyl chloride, styrene-butadiene rubber, polyamide, melamine, polyethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene, which are called the king of plastics. The emergence of these synthetic materials has played an important role in the development of electrical technology. For example, enameled acetal wires are used in motors to improve their working temperature and reliability, while the volume and weight of motors are greatly reduced. Successful development of glass fiber and its braided tape and synthesis of organic silicone resin have increased the heat-resistant grade of H for motor insulation.
 
40年代以后不饱和聚酯、环氧树脂问世。粉云母纸的出现使人们摆脱了片云母资源匮乏的困境。
 
Unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin came out after the 1940s. The emergence of mica paper has freed people from the plight of lack of mica resources.
 
50年代以来,合成树脂为基的新材料得到了广泛应用,如不饱和聚酯和环氧等绝缘胶可供高压电机线圈浸渍用。聚酯系列产品在电机槽衬绝缘、漆包线及浸渍漆中使用,发展了E级和B级低压电机绝缘,使电机的体积和重量进一步下降。六氟化硫开始用于高压电器,并使之向大容量小型化发展。断路器的空气绝缘及变压器的油和纸绝缘部分地被六氟化硫所取代。
 
Since the 1950s, synthetic resin-based new materials have been widely used, such as unsaturated polyester and epoxy insulating adhesives for impregnation of high voltage motor coils. The application of polyester series products in the insulation of motor slot lining, enameled wire and impregnating paint has developed the insulation of E-class and B-class low-voltage motors, which further reduces the volume and weight of motors. Sulfur hexafluoride has begun to be used in high voltage electrical appliances and is developing towards large capacity and miniaturization. Air insulation of circuit breakers and oil and paper insulation of transformers are partly replaced by sulfur hexafluoride.
 
60年代含杂环和芳环的耐热树脂得到了大发展,如聚酰亚胺、聚芳酰胺、聚芳砜、聚苯硫醚等属 H级及更高耐热等级的材料。这些耐热材料的合成为以后发展 F级、H级电机创造了有利条件。聚丙烯薄膜在这一时期也成功地用于电力电容器。
 
In the 1960s, the heat-resistant resins containing heterocyclic and aromatic rings were greatly developed, such as polyimide, polyaromatic amide, polyaromatic sulfone, polyphenylene sulfide and other materials belonging to H-grade and higher heat-resistant grade. The synthesis of these heat-resistant materials has created favorable conditions for the development of F and H class motors in the future. Polypropylene film was also successfully used in power capacitors during this period.
 
70年代以来新材料的开发研究相对比较少,这一时期主要是对现有材料进行各种改性及扩大应用范围。对矿物绝缘油采用新方法精制以降低其损耗;环氧云母绝缘在提高其机械性能和实现无气隙以提高其电性能方面做了很多改进。电力电容器由纸膜复合结构向全膜结构过渡。1000千伏级特高压电力电缆开始研究用合成纸绝缘取代传统的天然纤维纸。无公害绝缘材料70年代以来也发展很快,如以无毒介质异丙基联苯、酯类油取代有毒介质氯化联苯,无溶剂漆的扩大应用等。随着家用电器的普及,其绝缘材料着火而导致重大火灾事故屡有发生,所以对阻燃材料的研究引起了重视。
 
Since the 1970s, the development and research of new materials are relatively few. In this period, the existing materials are mainly modified and applied in a wide range. The mineral insulating oil is refined by a new method to reduce its loss, and the epoxy mica insulation has made many improvements in improving its mechanical properties and realizing no air gap to improve its electrical properties. Power capacitors are transformed from PAPER-FILM composite structure to full-film structure. 1000 KV UHV power cable began to study the replacement of traditional natural fibre paper with synthetic paper insulation. Pollution-free insulating materials have also developed rapidly since the 1970s, such as replacing toxic medium chlorinated biphenyl with non-toxic medium isopropyl biphenyl and ester oil, and expanding application of solvent-free paint. With the popularity of household electrical appliances, the ignition of insulating materials leads to frequent major fire accidents, so the study of flame retardant materials has attracted much attention.
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